3D Research


CGI History Timeline

Posted in CGI History by sr789 on November 22, 2007

1960’s
Chales CsuriComputer generated imagary originated in the 1960’s, with pioneers such as Charles Csuri. In 1963, he began experimenting in CGI and created his first computer generated artwork. In 1965 he created a real-time interactive 3D animation. Another key figure in CGI from the 1960’s was John Whitney Senior. He is known for bringing CGI into films, with the slit-scan technique used in 2001: A Space Odyssey (1968).

1970’sDeath Star
John Whitney Senior’s son, John Whitney Junior was involved in the digital image processing used in Westworld (1973) and it’s sequal Futureworld (1974)The first time actual 3D graphics was used in film was in Star Wars Episode 4 – A New Hope (1977). Such technology was used again in Superman (1978), Ridley Scott’s Alien (1979) and Disney’s The Black Hole (1979). 

1980’s
In 1981, shaded 3D graphics was used for the first time in film, in Looker. It was created Tronat III (Information International Inc.). John Whitney Junior was part of III. The next big use of GCI in film was in Star Trek II – Wrath of Khan (1982), where there was a 1 minute long piece of CGI. Tron (also released in 1982) also used CGI. III, as well as Magi Synthavison, Digital Effects of New York and Robert Abel were involved in its creation (John Whitney Junior had left III by this time).
Robert Abel created the first computer generated television advert in 1985. It was called Brilliance (also known as Sexy Robot). He followed up with another advert for Del Monte’s Hawian Punch in 1986, which is was known for its excellent models and texture mapping.
 

1990’sToy Story
In 1990 3D Studio Max was made. It was a program that allowed you to make 3D models. Terminator 2 – Judgment Day (1991) used the continuous skin technique. Another big CGI film was Jurrasic Park (1993). Dreamworks SKG was founded in 1995. Both 3D films and 3D gaming began to appear with Disney’s Toy Story (1995) and Ninendo’s Super Mario 64 (1996) being notable ones.
In 1998 Alias Maya was released. The sequal to Toy Story, Toy Story 2 was released in 1999.

Disney and Pixar
Disney have always been a large part of CGI. In the 1970’s they created the Disney Visual Effects lab, which became the Buena Vista Visual Effects in 1990 and changed again to Buena Vista Imaging in 1996. The IncrediblesDisney are known for animated films such as Toy Story and A Bug’s Life, which were created by Pixar Studios. Pixar was once part of Lucas Arts. and were part of the team that made the CGI in Star Wars Episode 4 – A New Hope. Pixar made many short films throughout the 1980’s. In the 1990’s Disney and Pixar teamed up to create CG animated feature films. The first they made was Toy Story in 1995. They then went on to make other films – A Bug’s Life (1998), Toy Story 2 (1999), Monsters Inc. (2001), Finding Nemo (2003), The Incredibles (2004), Cars (2006) and Ratatouille (2007).

Dreamworks
Another major studio who does CGI is Dreamworks Animation SKG. The origins of Bee MovieDreamworks Animation lies within Pacific Data Images (PDI). PDI was founded in 1980, and are known for making the digital effects in Terminator 2 in 1991. Dreamworks SKG formed in 1997 and the two made a co-production deal. The first film for them was Antz (1998) and it was their first CG animated feature film. In 2000, Dreamworks SKG aquired PDI and a new division called Dreamworks Animation was made. This stuido specifically dealt with animation, (both 2d and 3d). Dreamworks Animation seperated from Dreamworks SKG, to form Dreamworks Animation SKG in 2004.

Shrek (2001) was the next Dreamworks film after Antz, and was followed by Shrek 2 (2004), Shark Tale (2004), Madagascar (2005), Over the Hedge (2006), Shrek the Third (2007) and Bee Movie (2007). Much like how all Pixar films are distrubuted by Disney, all Dreamworks Animation films are distributed by Paramount.

Cartesian Co-ordinate System

Posted in Cartesian Co-ordinates by sr789 on November 8, 2007

2d Cartesian SystemThe Cartesian Co-ordinate System is a system that creates the illusion of working in a two-dimensional or three-dimensional space. They have 2 or 3 axes. At the centre, where the axes meet there is O. This is the origin, the point where the axes intersect.

The 2-dimensional Cartesian system has two axes, x and y (horizontal and vertical). With these two axes, you can locate any point in a two-dimensional space. Each section of the Cartesian Co-ordinate System is split into Quadrents. Quadrent 1 (x,y), 2 (-x,y), 3 (-x,-y) and 4 (x,-y). 

The three-dimensional Cartesian system has three axes, which are x, y and z Cartesian System (horizontal, vertical and depth). The z axis was added to the Cartesian Co-ordinate system during the 19th century.  This meant that any point in a three-dimensional space could be located using the Cartesian Co-oridinate System.

The Cartesian Co-ordinate System was developed by Rene Descartes, a french mathematician, in 1637. Descates was not only a mathematician, but a philosopher. He is known for the famous, “I think, therefore I am” quote.

 

Ivan Sutherland

Posted in Key Figures by sr789 on October 18, 2007

Ivan Edward Sutherland is a computer programmer and Internet pioneer. He was born in 1938, in Hasting, Nebraska. Sutherland studied Electrical Engineering at the Carnegie Institute of Technology, and gained his Bachelor’s degree. He also gained his Master’s degree from Caltech and PhD in Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences from MIT. He is a member of: –– The National Academy of Engineering
– The National Academy of Sciences
– The Association for Computing Machinery

He has been a professor at Harvard University (1966-1968), the University of Utah (1968-1974) and the California Institute of Technology (1974-1978). In 1968 he co-founded Evans & Sutherland with his friend David Evans. Evans & Sutherland was a computer firm involved in the computer graphics field. In 2006 it joined companies with Spitz, (a major company in the production of dome theaters). Their company is best known for the Genesis Device simulation sequence in Star Trek: The Wrath of Khan, which one of there computers was used to create. It was one of the first computer graphic sequences ever used in a movie. He is currently a Vice President and Fellow at Sun Microsystems.SutherlandSketchpad is best known for his creation, the Sketchpad. It was a computer program, written in 1963 in the course of his PhD thesis, for which he received the Turing Award in 1988. Sketchpad was the first program to ever utilize a complete GUI (Graphical User Interface). It also: –– It could draw both horizontal and vertical lines and combine them into figures and shapes.
– It could copy, move, rotate, and resize figures, while retaining their basic properties.
– Had the first window-drawing program and clipping algorithm, which allowed zooming.
Sutherland is also known for what is widely considered to be the first virtual reality and augmented reality head-mounted Sword of Damoclesdisplay system. In 1968, with the help of his student Bob Sproull he created the system, which is known as The Sword of Damocles. It was was primitive both in terms of user interface and realism, and the graphics comprising the virtual environment were simple wireframe rooms. It was head to the point, that it had to be support from the ceiling by a mechanical arm.Ivan Sutherland is a pioneer because of his creation the Sktechpad. It is seen as where computer graphics formally began. His vision helped in the creation of computer graphics. His work allowed for the realization of the potential of computer graphics.

Hello world!

Posted in Uncategorized by sr789 on September 20, 2007

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